Intro to Design Thinking

An Introduction to Design Thinking

by Gilang Andi Pradana, PhD


  • Self Introduction
  • Innovation? Design Thinking?
  • Case Studies
  • QnA

About Me

  • Started Next Creation Inc. in 2018, helping organizations in Japan discover opportunities for innovation and validate new ideas to solve real business challenges with a human-centric approach.
  • 6+ years of academic research background in Human-Computer Interaction Design at the University of London (PhD) and Keio University, Tokyo (Master's degree, Dean's List).
  • Certified Design Sprint Facilitator
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measurable adds value to: customers business society
of new ideas
new product new service new approach new method new implementation

Design Thinking?

What is the first thing you do when you want to give present to someone you love?

You start to think about what you understand about the person
Their personality, things they love, things they need, past gift-giving experience. You start to put more attention in observing their daily life and behaviour.

A gift is not just a ‘thing’. It is a representation of your feeling, showing how much you care for them
That’s why you don’t just give it to the person. You try to convey your feeling more by thinking: How are you going to give it? What is the best possible experience?

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It’s not about what your product can do. It’s more about how your customers' problems can be solved.
There’s a gap between the value that users need and the value that the product/service provides.

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Why did the Segway failed?

  • The expectations were too high Was it really the future of transportation?
  • It wasn’t really a solution
  • No clear need/ target marketToo busy building the product without understanding who are they designing for and what problem are they solving
  • No safety regulation
  • Design flaws. No iteration in the process

It was not The Right 'It'!

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Make sure you are building The Right ‘It’, before you build it right. How?
Start by asking, “Are we solving the right problem?”

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Design Thinking

Human-centred approach to innovation.
Integrating the needs of people, the possibilities of technology, and the requirements for business success. - Tim Brown, IDEO
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Design Thinking?

  • Design thinking adalah sebuah rangkaian pola pikir untuk mengidentifikasi masalah yang tepat dan menemukan solusi inovatif yang:
      1. Sesuai dengan kebutuhan pengguna (desirable).
      1. Mampu dieksekusi dengan teknologi yang ada (feasible).
      1. Mempunyai nilai dari segi bisnis (viable).


Say Goodbye to:

  • Preconceived ideas
  • Unconscious biases
  • How we did it last time
  • One size fits all solutions

And embrace:

  • Human centered
  • holistic
  • innovative
  • validated and proven solutions

What is Human-Centered Approach?

Challenge: Increase the sales of a soft drink vending machine located in a subway station
Market-centered approach
Most of the customers in the subway station are middle-aged businessmen, so let's only sell drinks that middle-aged men would like (based on the sales report of other vendors/ other convenient stores).
Technology-centered approach
Use the latest supercomputer with a super advanced AI to build a vending machine that can recommend the drink by analyzing the face, age, gender, etc. of the user.
Human-centered approach
During user observation, we noticed that most of the vending machine customers were paying attention to their watches before buying a drink.
How Might We make the customers worry less about missing the next train while using the vending machine?
Create a vending machine with a display to tell how many minutes are left until the next train arrives to make customers feel more comfortable buying drinks.



  • Design thinking memiliki fokus untuk memahami perilaku dan menggali kebutuhan pengguna dengan sangat mendalam, sehingga perusahaan memiliki potensi yang lebih besar untuk membuka peluang bisnis yang belum disadari oleh pasar.
  • Menciptakan produk/layanan yang memberikan nilai lebih dalam menyelesaikan masalah pengguna.
  • Adanya tahap uji coba ide terlebih dahulu kepada target pengguna untuk divalidasi sebelum masuk ke fase development (coding, engineering, etc.) dapat mengurangi risiko finansial dan waktu berbulan-bulan yang habis untuk membangun produk yang tidak dibutuhkan oleh pasar.
  • ‘Design-led’ companies have been proven to outperform the competition.



Most business & organisations have been struggling to figure out:
  • How to innovate?
  • How to create products/services that customers love?
  • How to implement design thinking?

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"Without a set of systems and processes, doing meetings are more likely just doing busywork without actually solving problems or taking actions".
Jonathan Courtney, AJ&Smart

How can we implement academically proven design methods in the fast-paced industry?

Design Thinking = Mindset
The process is flexible, but the principles aren’t
Started in the 60s : Attempts to ‘scientise’ design to solve complex problems
IDEO : Early 90s
Stanford (2005)
GV Design Sprint (2010)

A Brief History of Design Sprint

Inventor of the Design Sprint, Jake Knapp, was a believer in brainstorms until a fellow Googler dared to ask after a brainstorm session: how do we know that the idea is the right ‘it’?
His mission was clear: design a process that combine the benefits of group work: diverse opinions and expertise, with the benefits of individual work: highly detailed solutions to problems. And so, the Design Sprint was born.
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The Design Sprint methodology is a process based on Design Thinking for testing ideas and solving complex problems. The principle behind it is simple:
Getting started is more than important than being right.
The goal of the sprint process is to convert vague ideas of “what’s wrong” and “will feature X fix it?” into concrete solutions you can actually test with your target users.

Design Thinking = Cooking Class Design Sprint = Recipe Facilitator = Chef

The Process

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Empathise - Rabu, 4 Agustus 2021, 09:00 - 12:00 WIB

2 Hours - Lecture
  1. Berempati dan memahami pengguna
  1. Bagaimana cara mengumpulkan data untuk memahami pengguna?
  1. Mempersiapkan pertanyaan yang tepat
  1. Empathy Map


Define - Senin, 9 Agustus 2021, 13:00 - 16:00 WIB

2 Hours - Lecture & Workshop
  1. Making sense of mess: Bagaimana cara mencari makna dari hasil riset dari fase Empathise
  1. Memetakan pengguna
  1. Mendefinisikan masalah, membuat How Might We statement, dan menentukan target
  1. Persiapan untuk sesi Ideation (Eksplorasi ide).
  1. Homework: Lightning demo (Cari produk/layanan sejenis sebagai inspirasi untuk menjawab tantangan yang telah terdefinisikan di poin-3.)


Ideate - Kamis, 12 Agustus 2021, 09:00 - 12:00 WIB

2 Hours - Lecture & Workshop
  1. Presentasi lightning demo
  1. 4 tahapan mengembangkan ide: (Notes, Idea draft, Crazy 8s, dan Solution Sketch)

Prototyping & User Testing - Intermediate


Case Studies 1

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Case Studies 2

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Initial Challenges:
  • Website didn’t represent the brand well
  • Web sales made up only 10% of their revenue
How Might We translate the well-known hospitality and quality of the brand to the website and help people find coffee they will love?




Stakeholder Interviews


Half-day meeting with people who have knowledge about the business objectives, the intended users and usage.
  1. Business Manager
  1. Project Manager
  1. User Representative(s)


  • Why are we doing this?
  • Who are we doing it for?
  • What value should it provide?
  • How will we measure success?
  • What can we really do?

Secondary Research


Collecting data that has already been produced. It can be historical, qualitative or quantitative.
  1. Market Research
  1. Trends in the field
  1. Internal data: Databases, Reports

Primary Research


First hand research
  1. User surveys
  1. User interviews


Understand the Problem

  • Discovery process
  • Understand thoroughly before coming up with sensible solutions
  • Involve users in your research
  • Sales & Customer service
  • Not just asking people what they want
  • Really poor judges of future behaviour
  • Rather just asking people at their opinion, we look at their behaviour.
  • Sit and watch
  • Website: Not just feedback. Watch what they're doing and what they are struggling with.
  • Understanding user needs and motivation
  • Don't be afraid to pivot.
  • Start with a blank state
  • Become a learner: Listen, observe, take notes, ask questions
  • Reflect on what you have learned
  • Identify gaps in your knowledge

Effective User Interviews

  • Ask open questions.
  • Ask why to encourage stories A lot of useful information is hidden in these stories
  • Listen. Smile. Nod.
  • Embrace the silence. Use silence to your advantage You only speak 10-20 percent. Your main goal is to listen and understand how this person thinks.
  • Gain empathy and understanding When you design, you can imagine about this person. Walk in their shoes.
  • Find problems, not solutions
  • If you don't have access to users, Talk to sales or customer support

Practice: Cognitive Walkthrough

  • Walking thru a process or q from ur users' perspective
  • Ask yourself open questions: Practice
  • Ask other people.
  • Desk research, secondary research
  • Create empathy map


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The End.